MLB Trade Networks Part 3: Edges Code

In our previous post I shared the SQL code I created to pull data for our upcoming set of trade networks based on WAR (Wins Above Replacement) numbers from the Neil Paine 538 MLB data set. The prior post dealt with creating nodes for a network graph; this post will share code for edge creation. In simple terms, a graph needs edges that connect related nodes; for our case we need to connect transaction (trade) nodes to the teams and players involved in each transaction.

Part of what makes this case interesting is my desire to show edge weights based on the future WAR value each team received. Showing edges with varying weights will quickly help users to identify the relative importance of a trade. Wider edges will indicate a trade that involved high future value for one or both teams. In seeing the individual players involved in a common trade we can pinpoint where the future value (or lack thereof) comes from. This will become much clearer when the graphs are posted; I’ll do one or more posts on how to use and interpret each graph.

For now let’s examine the code. Gephi requires users to identify Source nodes and Target nodes whether the edges are Undirected (i.e.- it doesn’t matter which node leads to the other) or Directed. Our initial code is for transactions to teams:

SELECT CONCAT(tr.TransactionID, ‘-‘, tr.PrimaryDate) AS Source, t.franchID AS Target, CONCAT(‘The ‘,, ‘ received ‘, ROUND(SUM(h.WAR162),1),
‘ wins in future WAR value’) AS Label,
IF(ROUND(SUM(h.WAR162),1) = tr.season and tr.Type = ‘T’ AND tr.Season >= 1901 and LENGTH(tr.TeamTo) = 3 AND LENGTH(tr.TeamFrom) = 3
AND tr.Season = t.yearID
GROUP BY tr.TransactionID, tr.PrimaryDate, t.franchID,;

With this code we are linking every transaction to the teams receiving one or more players in a trade. Note that we are summing the WAR value to create an edge weight based on the total value received by each team. If four players were involved (two to each team) these edge weights will reflect the combined values of these players. Note that we are setting edge weight = 1.0 if the future WAR is less than 1 (some will actually be negative so we need a minimal edge to show). Here’s a sample of results:

In contrast, the edges linking a transaction to individual players are based solely on that one player’s value. In the case cited above we will wind up with four lines of varying weights. Otherwise the code is quite similar:

SELECT CONCAT(tr.TransactionID, ‘-‘, tr.PrimaryDate) AS Source, p.playerID AS Target, CONCAT(p.nameFirst,’ ‘, p.nameLast, ‘ provided ‘, ROUND(SUM(h.WAR162),1),
‘ wins in future WAR value for the ‘, AS Label,
IF(ROUND(SUM(h.WAR162),1) = tr.season and tr.Type = ‘T’ AND tr.Season >= 1901 and LENGTH(tr.TeamTo) = 3 AND LENGTH(tr.TeamFrom) = 3
AND tr.Season = t.yearID AND t.franchID = h.franch_ID
GROUP BY tr.TransactionID, tr.PrimaryDate, p.nameFirst, p.nameLast, p.playerID,;

The same logic on edge weights applies but now at the player level. Here are a few results:

I hope this makes sense – it will all become much more clear when the network graphs are produced. The good news is that I already have three graphs created and many more to come shortly. I’ll have some of them available on the site later this week. As always, thanks for reading.

FacebooktwitterlinkedinrssFacebooktwitterlinkedinrssby feather
FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailFacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailby feather

Trade Network Updates, Part 1

A few years back (2016 o be specific) I created network graphs displaying the history of trades made for each MLB franchise, using transactions data from the wonderful Retrosheet project. These graphs presented more than a few challenges in how to present the data but I wound up with what I consider to be a very interesting set of results, which you can find here. I also created some posts on the process at that time, found here and here.

Here’s a snapshot within a graph:

Six seasons have elapsed since I created those graphs, so I thought it was beyond time to update them, but this time with a twist. Last fall I came across a great dataset that captures an array of advanced sabermetric statistics which I hope to use on a regular basis. These statistics can be used to assess a player’s true value relative to his peers each season. What if I could incorporate those into the trade network updates to show the post-trade value of each player to their new team? Ideally, this will help to show the value of each trade and which team wound up getting the better part of the deal.

Of course this would involve adding a degree of complexity to the MySQL code for pulling the data and shaping it for use in creating network graphs. However, the end result could be very revealing and worthwhile. Today I’m at the start of the process, tinkering with SQL code to extract the data in a proper format. Here’s an example:

SELECT h.player_name, p.playerID, tr.season, tr.TransactionID, tr.TeamFrom, tr.TeamTo, ROUND(SUM(h.WAR162),1) as WAR

FROM historical_WAR_and_more h
ON h.key_bbref = p.bbrefID
INNER JOIN trades2021 tr
ON p.retroID = tr.Player

WHERE tr.season >= 1901 and h.year_ID > tr.season and h.team_ID = tr.TeamTo AND tr.Type = ‘T’

GROUP BY h.player_name, p.playerID, tr.season, tr.TransactionID, tr.TeamFrom, tr.TeamTo

In this case, I’m looking at the cumulative WAR (Wins Above Replacement) for each traded player with their new team. This could be a single season total or the sum of many years in some cases. Here are some results:

We now have post-trade results (starting if the season following the trade) as measured by WAR for each traded player. We see one fairly substantial figure – the second Aaron Harang trade which netted 16.9 WAR points for his new team, the Cincinnati Reds (CIN in the results). Given that a single season WAR above 3 or 4 is considered substantial, it’s clear that his new team probably benefited from a few of those high-value seasons. What we can’t see yet is what they gave away in their half of the trade.

Fortunately, we can access this using the TransactionID field, which provides all the information for each party within the trade. But we’ll save that for another day as I figure out the next progression of the code. As always, thanks for reading!

FacebooktwitterlinkedinrssFacebooktwitterlinkedinrssby feather
FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailFacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailby feather